Sirtuins in Multiple Sclerosis: The crossroad of neurodegeneration, autoimmunity and metabolism
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a challenging and disabling condition particularly in the secondary progressive (SP) phase of this disease. The available treatments cannot ameliorate or stop disease progression in this phase, and there is an urgent need to focus on effective therapies and the molecular pathways involved SPMS. Given the significant impact of neurodegeneration, autoimmunity and metabolic alterations in MS, focusing on the molecules that target these different pathways could help in finding new treatments. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, which have critical roles in the physiology of central nervous system, immune system and metabolism. Based on these facts, SIRTs are crucial candidates of therapeutic targets in MS and collecting the information related to MS disease for each SIRT individually is noteworthy and highlights the lack of investigation in each part. In this review we summarized the role of different sirtuins as key regulator in neurodegeneration, autoimmunity and metabolism pathways. We also clarify the rationale behind selecting SIRTs as therapeutic targets in MS disease by collecting the researches showing alteration of these proteins in human samples of MS patients and animal model of MS, and also the improvement of modeled animals after SIRT-directed treatments.